Appendix II
VALIDATION
The European Pollen Monitoring Programme, which is a Working Group of the Holocene Commision of INQUA (International Quaternary Association), was launched at a meeting in Kuusamo and Hailuoto, Finland 4 - 8th July, 1996 and will run initially for three years. The aim of the programme is to use pollen traps to monitor pollen deposition across vegetation transitions from closed forest to open situations under as natural conditions as possible as a basis for interpreting fossil pollen spectra. By this means POLLEN INFLUX values (grains cm-2 year-1) will be obtained for key European tree and shrub species. Participation in the programme is open to any researcher. The minimum requirement is a transect of three pollen traps placed: 1) in the forest, 2) at the forest edge and, 3) in the unforested area. Traps for the first stage of the programme should be established at the end of the flowering season (September-October) 1996. After that date each addition of traps to the programme should commence at the same time of year (September-October) to ensure that the sampling period is always the same.
Precise details of the programme are set out in the publication "European Pollen Monitoring Project. Project Description and Guidelines" which can be obtained from the project organizer: Dr Sheila Hicks, Department of Geosciences and Astronomy, University of Oulu, Linnanmaa, 90570 OULU, Finland. (Fax: +358-8-5531484, e-mail: sheila.hicks@oulu.fi).